Foundations of Teaching for Learning (Part 1)
The learning process is a cycle of three stages, i.e. plan, do, and reflection. The third stage is the main pillar in the learning process, it will increase the quality of teaching and the quality of student learning outcomes will also increase. The third stage is a cycle that can not be separated, planning is determined by reflection, reflection using the data generated from the implementation and execution of an expression of the planning.
In the lesson plan, first of all I would define learning objectives. Based on these objectives is determined to teach (methods / strategies / methods / approaches / techniques) to achieve the learning objectives that have been set. Teachers also determine how to assess the feasibility of learning objectives. In carrying out the study using a method selected, will be determined media, learning resources, tools and materials, as needed.
Teachers prepared lesson plans that are based not only on the content standards alone (standard of competence and basic competences) but there are also other variables are taken into consideration. Variables that also determine the quality of the learning plan is data of student learning outcomes, student reflections, teacher reflection, theory and philosophy of teacher-controlled learning, curriculum context, recent findings of known science and technology teachers, Current Issue, conditions of students, school conditions. And based on 9 variables above are at least three important variables that determine the quality and the learning plan, the student learning outcomes data, student reflections, and teacher reflection.
And based on Inquiry teaching and student learning outcomes data, student reflections, and teacher reflections collected during the learning process, will be analyzed to answer the hypothesis. For example, if the learning outcomes achieved by students in an optimal means lesson plans that have been designed and implemented an appropriate way of teaching. Conversely, if the results are not optimal learning means learning plans need to be repaired. Thus, the data of student learning outcomes, student reflections, and teacher reflections major variables that determine the development of the quality of learning.
The data to answer the questions / hypotheses in the lesson plan not only student learning outcomes, but also reflection of teachers and students’ reflections. Actual lesson plan contains predictions of teachers to the learning situation. For example, the teachers plan learning plan demonstrates the behavior of the fish breathe in water with detergent with increasing concentration. Of this demonstration students are expected to draw up a statement that the respiration of fish will increase relates to an increase in the concentration of detergent. At the time of this demonstration is applied in learning, there are three possible events; responses appropriate student teacher predictions, corresponding in part, or none of the appropriate student teacher predictions. Such a situation is certainly worth noting teacher for two interests. The first interest is to be used as a basis for decision-making changes in instructional strategies, secondly, be a material reflection for learning improvement plan that will be used later. Therefore a learning plan that basically contains predictions teacher, demanding teachers to identify possible responses students so that teachers can take action quickly and accurately.
The teaching inquiry puts teachers in a strategic position in determining what and how teachers teach based on the needs of their students, to make a decision what the right strategy to meet the needs of these students, and examine how students’ responses to the learning process. Inquiry teaching puts teachers and students as a subject of study.
As a teacher, I use thinking skills in the learning process. Thought processes of the teacher before learning, during learning, and after learning. the results of the thinking process produces innovative didactic design. According Suryadi (2010) the innovative thinking process can produce a new didactic design, so that a series of three thought process is formulated as a didactic Design Research (didactical Design Research).
The thinking process of teaching inquiry conducted before learning involves three key questions. First, what is the material given to the students to learn, based on the condition of the students, school conditions, school curricula, and government policies. Second, what learning model is used to help students learn. Learning model refers to the opinion of Joyce and Weil covers strategies, approaches, classroom management, and goals to be achieved. Third, what data is collected to be used to determine the effectiveness of learning.
Learning plan, citing a term coined Suryadi (2010) is a hypothetical didactic design. Preparation of lesson plan is not only based on the condition of students, analysis of student responses, teacher experience, but also the knowledge and theories of education held by teachers. Lesson plan is a plan that is based not only facts but also empirical theories of education. (YK)